DISCLAIMER – OBSOLETE Engine Pressure results will be updated soon. All published 1944 ‘Moody Chart’ test results…
…that Cal Fire still teaches their cadets upon violating all laws of physics as they apply to fire hydraulics evidenced upon improper calculation methodology…
…will be replaced with 2005 USDA Forest Service San Dimas Training and Development Center results soon.
ALWAYS FREE download here, but you can purchase the latest printed soft-cover by clicking here: “Wildland Fire Hydraulics – Myth or Math” always found at http://HydraulicsBook.org
Download the latest technology to learn how both the Android and iOS phone apps and mechanical HFT Fire Slide-Rule respect every irrefutable Law of Physics (upon the Hazen-Williams equation and this internationally recognized Friction Loss (FL) calculator) to ACCURATELY calculate TOTAL ENGINE PRESSURE (EP) in seconds in the field (with the assistance of USGS GAIA Maps phone app and hardcopy maps) under the stress of fighting a fire. A process that usually takes minutes to apply every aspect of the Moody Chart/Diagram in longhand in the peace and comfort of a classroom to complete… yet is rarely executed when and where we need it most to address other priorities… such as FIGHTING THE FIRE!
This is based upon the internationally accepted formulas for more than a century that has been implemented to engineer and install literally every water delivery system [Hydrant, Standpipe, Hose Cabinet, Sprinkler, Irrigation, etc.] on the planet upon the “Moody Diagram/Chart” as:
[Friction Loss (FL) = (GPM/100)^2 * Coefficient * Length/100’] [within each and every individually (GPM) affected section]
…in that, the formula to calculate Wildland Fire Engine Pump Pressure (EP) is more accurately determined upon the San Dimas Training and Development Center ACTUAL results. All figures are the result of ‘new’ (NON) “Published” coefficients discovered in 2005 that even the author was aware made all others OBSOLETE as:
[Nozzle Pressure (NP) (+) TOTAL Friction Loss (FL) [of BOTH: each section of ‘ATTACK’ line affected by each ‘OVERHAUL’ Lateral (+) Appliance Loss (A) and (+) or minus (-) HEAD (H) (=) TOTAL Engine Pressure (EP at <400 PSI)]
But the Coefficient(“C”) for 1 1/2″ is NOT 24… but rather 35. And the Coefficient(“C”) for 1″ is NOT 150… but rather 250! THIS IS TOTAL GAME CHANGER! …but primarily upon the author of this website in that his “HEN-WAY” methodology is even a more significant benefit than ever dreamed!
Yes, do please try to pump a 1,000′ hoselay with a 60 GPM “Attack” nozzle with four (4) 10 GPM laterals in that the “Standard” methodology requires 341 PSI (on flat ground) BEFORE (+) HEAD is even considered… that’s 59 PSI that yields 136 feet of HEAD… or in other words, if you are a pumping slope any steeper than 13.6% at that point, YOU ARE VIOLATING OSHA MANDATES UPON BURNING YOUR FIREFIGHTERS!
Now try to extend only 100′! That now becomes 60 GPM “Attack” nozzle with FIVE (5)10 GPM laterals in that the “Standard” methodology requires 416 PSI (on flat ground) BEFORE (+) HEAD is even considered… that’s a MINUS 16 PSI that yields a NEGATIVE 36 feet of HEAD… or in other words, if you are NOT pumping DOWNHILL on a slope at least at -3.3% at that point, YOU ARE AGAIN VIOLATING OSHA MANDATES UPON BURNING YOUR FIREFIGHTERS!
For you federal Driver/Operators, do please try to pump a 1,000′ hoselay with a 75 GPM “Attack” nozzle with four (4) 10 GPM laterals in that the “Standard”methodology requires 433 PSI (on flat ground) BEFORE (+) HEAD is even considered… that’s a MINUS 33 PSI that yields a MINUS -76 feet of HEAD… or in other words, if you are a pumping slope DOWNHILL steeper than a MINUS -7.6% Grade at that point, YOU ARE VIOLATING OSHA MANDATES UPON BURNING YOUR FIREFIGHTERS!
Now try to extend only 100′! That now becomes 75 GPM “Attack” nozzle with FIVE (5)10 GPM laterals in that the “Standard” methodology requires 525 PSI (on flat ground) BEFORE (+) HEAD is even considered… that’s a MINUS 125 PSI that yields a NEGATIVE -288 feet of HEAD. Or in other words, if you are NOT pumping DOWNHILL on a slope at least at -26% that is nearly a football field in length BELOW YOU at that point, DO YOU AT “FEEL” YOU ARE AGAIN VIOLATING OSHA MANDATES UPON BURNING YOUR FIREFIGHTERS!?!
Let’s look at the HEN-WAY. At 60 GPM with FIVE (5) 10 GPM laterals at 1,100 feet, the required Pump Pressure to accommodate Friction Loss of BOTHsupply/attack lines BEFORE (+) HEAD is even considered is only 213 PSI! That’s 203 PSI and 49% LESS that yields 431 feet of (+) HEAD… or in other words, you can SAFELY pump a slope at 32%; a FULL 467 FEET (MORE than one and a half football fields!) ABOVE where most have NO CLUE THEY ARE VIOLATING OSHA MANDATES UPON BURNING YOUR FIREFIGHTERS!
When we consider the HEN-WAY at 75 GPM with FIVE (5) 10 GPM laterals at 1,100 feet, the required Pump Pressure to accommodate Friction Loss of BOTHsupply/attack lines BEFORE (+) HEAD is only 248 PSI! That’s 152 PSI that yields 351 feet of (+) HEAD… or in other words, you can SAFELY pump a slope at 39%; a FULL 639 FEET [OVER TWO (2) FOOTBALL FIELDS!!!] ABOVE where most have NO CLUE THEY ARE VIOLATING OSHA MANDATES UPON BURNING THEIR FIREFIGHTERS!
Learn how to meet NFPA 1002, and OSHA 29 CFR 1910.156 mandates to establish and maintain ‘EFFECTIVE FIRESTREAMS at “THE RATED FLOW OF THE NOZZLE” at the instruction that meets JOB PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATIONS (JPRs) per NFPA 1041 at the addition of every length of any progressive of wildland hose lay but in REAL-TIME. But even more importantly, WHEN TO STOP for firefighter SAFETYupon the exhaustion of the maximum 400 PSI pressure of any Wildland Type III engine can produce is no longer EVIDENCED as physically possible.
Especially when they are the very ones who have done the (different methodology) calculations in the field upon being INSTRUCTED (severely mislead) 2,000’ feet is possible! AS MANY HAVE upon no clue whatsoever, unknowingly NEGLIGENTLY placing their crews are in GRAVE DANGER!!!
The theory, use, and application of the “HEN-WAY” wildland fire hoselay configuration/ methodology can and does exponentially exceed every evidenced inherent limitation of the “Standard” method. A methodology the world has never seen! Dual hose lines, as suggested as necessary by the USFS in Fig. 24 on Page 20 of their bible (Basic Hydraulics -An Introduction to Fire Streams), significantly reduces the Friction Loss (FL) component by as much as 75% upon the lengths affected.
…but WITHOUT THE NEED to hand carry an extremely heavy, cumbersome, and ineffective yet expensive PORTABLE PUMP over two (2) football field lengths upslope through heavy brush and timber just to maintain proper nozzle pressure for a couple more hundred feet to attempt to secure firefighter SAFETY!
The advantage of establishing dual lines, in the same manner before the invention of LDH was used for larger municipal fires; this procedure significantly reduces the total GPM through each length to about half. Roughly ½ GPM times (X) ½ GPM equals ¼ the TOTAL Friction Loss (FL) component. Meaning this fraction of the GPM squared reduces the total friction loss as much as 75%! Hence the results we begin to realize below.
This incredible breakthrough of establishing dual lines that the Federal agencies only began to ponder in since 1978 can now become a reality that has never before been achieved in Fire Service history EVER! All just by merely adjusting the application of a few specific pieces of equipment differently from multiple Type 3 engines on-scene as:
What’s the weight comparison of an expensive, ineffective Portable Pump to:
1. Attach two (2) double females, one to each male of the dual ATTACK and SUPPLY lines; (1,200’ ft. 1 ½” hose complement on one(1) Type III engine)
2. Connect each to both males of an inverted/reversed Gated-Wye
3. Connect to a double male to again reverse the thread to the ‘correct’ direction
4. Connected ‘Tee’ (water-thief) to supply the next 1” ‘OVERHAUL’ lateral
5. Connected the last Gated-Wye now pointed the correct direction to…
6. Progress with the ATTACK hose length on the side closest to the fire line
7. Laying a second hose line dry and empty, but protected on the outside
8. Progressing four (4) dual ATTACK and SUPPLY hose lengths up to 1,000’ feet
9. REPEAT step #1…
Continue progression 100’ feet at a time until all ENGINE PRESSURE (EP) is calculated to meet but NOT breach 400 PSI. This is always based on total laterals operating and the accurate estimated (+) HEAD of the highest elevation nozzle using the latest USGS maps (phone app or hardcopy) within the hoselay accordingly.
You cannot get behind the wheel as a Driver/Operator and be expected to pump a hoselay SAFELY without the confirmed REQUISITE knowledge of hydraulics as required under NFPA 1002. Only this will meet the 29 CFR 1910.156 mandates. If members of your crew suffer burn injuries and/or even death, this very technology and equipment can be used as evidence against you. An attorney can find you liable for any evidenced GROSS NEGLIGENCE upon alleged severe INCOMPETENCE for any procedure(s) in direct violation of the laws of physics as articulated herein!
And to consider there is still an agency out there that has been instructing for decades a calculation methodology that has caused thousands of wildland fire apparatus driver/operators to BELIEVE that a 2,000’ foot hoselay only requires 252 PSI BEFORE (+) HEAD!
In that, 781 PSIis (mathematically) required BEFORE the (+) HEAD is even considered! That is 381 PSI above the maximum 400 PSI as governed to PROTECT our equipment and crews! AND yet these figures are (erroneously) calculated to 529 PSI LESSthan what the internationally accepted formula based on irrefutable Laws of Physics that every water system across the globe has been designed and created today!
Any Occupational Health and Safety issues within the jurisdiction of OSHA Section 5(a)(1) – General Duty Clause that you feel the common layperson may be concerned!?! How do you feel a jury of your peers might believe upon learning these specific Laws of Physics and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) executed throughout the history of the fire service are evidenced upon such this violation as evidenced in every book published that refers to hydraulics?
Additional information includes learning the greatest pre-connect hose load ever invented that Texas A & M University requested my copyright release of the video currently at:
One (1) hose load configuration that meets the need of EVERY INCIDENT! That can be fully charged in mere seconds! …at FULL nozzle pressure!! …with NO KINKS EVER!!! …at literally any distance from 10 feet of the engine and up to its entire length! Now, just imagine three (3) firefighters; deploying three (3) pre-connects; each nozzle effectively flowing 200 GPM; with the ability to pretreat and treat the entire area around an endangered apparatus that is or about to be burned over! And with just the water on board, this can be utilized AT ALL TIMES… and often more accurately than a helicopter or air-tanker that may not have the visibility to administer an effective drop.
Please go to http://BurnOver.hftfire.com
…and http://links.hftfire.com for more incredible break-throughs